APUNTES DE INGLES.ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS .2º CURSO

PRESENT PERFECT OR PAST SIMPLE?

 

 

1.       SE USA EL PRESENT PERFECT PARA HABLAR GENERALMENTE SOBRE EXPERIENCIAS PASADAS.

 

I’VE  BEEN ABROAD A LOT   – HE IDO AL EXTRANJERO MUCHO

HAVE YOU BEEN TO ROME? – HAS ESTADO EN ROMA?

 

2.   SE USA EL PASADO SIMPLE ,PARA HABLAR ACERCA DE “CUANDO”

 

I SAW YOUR SISTER YESTERDAY – VÍ A TU HERMANA AYER

WHEN DID SHE ARRIVE? – CUANDO LLEGÓ ELLA?

 

PREGUNTAS EN PRESENT PERFECT ( HAVE YOU EVER?…+ VERBO 3ª COLUMNA) ALGUNA VEZ?

 

PREGUNTAS                                                                   RESPUESTAS

 

HAVE YOU EVER BEEN  TO PARIS?                          YES,I  WENT THERE 10 YEARS AGO 

HAVE YOU EVER BROKEN A BONE                          YES,I BROKE MY LEG LAST YEAR

                                                                                              NO,I’VE NEVER BROKEN A BONE

 

 

HAVE TO /DON’T HAVE TO  (TENGO QUE/NO TENGO QUE)

        

SE USA ACERCA DE: OBLIGACIÓN / NO OBLIGACIÓN

 

 

I HAVE TO WEAR A UNIFORM.IT’S PART OF MY JOB

 

I DON’T HAVE TO WORK TOMORROW.IT’S SUNDAY

 

(NO SE CONTRAE HAVE NI HAS)

I HAVE TO TRAVEL A LOT    NO  I’VE TRAVEL A LOT

 

EJEMPLOS:

 

DURING THE WEEK                AT THE WEEKEND

 

I HAVE TO GET UP EARLY                                                           I HAVE TO COOK ON SATURDAY

 

I DON’T HAVE TO USE PUBLIC TRANSPORT       I HAVE TO DO HOUSEWOK

 

I DON’T HAVE TO LOOK AFTER CHILDREN                         I DON’T HAVE TO GO SHOPPING            

 

 

 

SENTENCES                             TENSE                     NEGATIVE SENTENCES          

 

                       

HE LIVES NEAR HERE     PRESENT SIMPLE              HE DOENS’T LIVE NEAR HERE

 

 

SHE’S(HAS) BEEN TO USA       PRESENT PERFECT      SHE HASN’T BEEN TO USA

 

 

WE’RE GOING TO BUY A CAR   FUTURE(GOING TO)   WE AREN’T GOING TO BUY…

 

 

HE’S LOOKING  FOR A JOB       PRESENT CONTIN.       HE ISN’T  LOOKING FOR A JOB

 

 

THEY’RE OFTEN LATE FOR CLASS    P.SIMPLE(TO BE) THEY AREN’T OFTEN LATE…

 

 

I WENT TO THE CINEMA                  PAST SIMPLE                 I DIDN’T GO TO THE CINEMA

 

 

SHE WAS TIRED LAST NIGHT  PAST SIMPLE (BE)        SHE WASN’T TIRED LAST NIGHT

 

ON SUNDAY HE’S FLYING TO…P.CONTINUOUS (FUTURE) ON SUNDAY HE ISN’T ..

 

HE WAS READING A BOOK        PAST CONTINUOUS        HE WASN´T  READING A BOOK

 

 

 

SE USA EL PAST SIMPLE Y NO EL PRESENT PERFECT EN LAS PREGUNTAS  QUE COMIENZAN POR

WHEN? O WHAT TIME?

 

GONE  Y  BEEN

 

HE’S GONE TO SPAIN                                          HE’S BEEN TO SPAIN

 

SE HA IDO  (Y ESTA ALLÍ)                             HA ESTADO ( Y HA VUELTO)   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

         

 

PRONOMBRES Y ADJETIVOS POSESIVOS 

 

SUBJECT PRONOUN

OBJECTS PRONOUN

POSSESIVE ADJECTIVE

POSSESIVE PRONOUN

 

I           YO

 

YOU    TU/VOSOTROS

 

HE        EL

 

SHE      ELLA

 

IT          ESTO

 

WE       NOSOTROS

 

THEY  ELLOS

 

 

ME   

 

YOU  TU/VOSOTROS

 

HIM   EL (A EL)

 

HER   ELLA ( A ELLA)

 

IT        ESTO

 

US       NOSOTROS

 

THEM    ELLOS

 

 

MY       MI

 

YOUR   TU

 

HIS      SU (DE EL)

 

HER    SU (DE ELLA)

 

ITS     SU (ANIMAL/COSA

 

OUR    NUESTRO

 

THEIR  SUYO

 

 

MINE     EL MIO

 

YOURS  EL TUYO/ LO VUESTRO

 

HIS         LOS SUYOS (DE EL)

 

HERS     LOS SUYOS (DE ELLA)

 

OURS     LO NUESTRO

 

THEIRS  LO DE ELLOS

 

 

 

LOS PRONOMBRES PERSONALES DE SUJETO SON

 LOS QUE REALIZAN LA ACCION

 

 

LOS PRONOMBRES OBJETOS,SON

LOS QUE RECIBEN LA ACCION

 

LOS ADJETIVOS POSESIVOS DENOTAN POSESIÓN: MI CASA!

CONCUERDAN CON EL POSEEDOR!!!

 

LOS PRONOMBRES POSESIVOS TAMBIEN DENOTAN POSESION,PERO SUSTITUYEN AL NOMBRE,EN ESTE CASO A CASA:IT’S MINE

USA LOS PRONOMBRES POSESIVOS PARA HABLAR ACERCA DE LAS POSESIONES DE LA GENTE.

 

SE PUEDE USAR EL NOMBRE PROPIO +’S  CON O SIN EL NOMBRE:IT’S  PETER’S CAR   OR IT’S PETER’S.

 

CON LOS PRONOMBRES POSESIVOS,NO SE USA EL ARTICULO THE: THIS IS THE MINE .

 

 

PRESENT PERFECT OR PAST SIMPLE? (II)

 

 

PRESENT PERFECT:

 

 

·        HAVE YOU EVER BEEN IN LONDON?

·        YES I HAVE

 

·        HAVE YOU EVER  BROKEN YOUR LEG?

·        YES I HAVE

 

 

         USA EL PRESENT PERFECT PARA HABLAR GENERALMENTE ACERCA DE EXPERIENCIAS PASADAS,

         CUANDO NO PUEDES DECIR O PREGUNTAR : “CUANDO”.

 

 

         USA “EVER” EN PREGUNTAS PARA EXPERIENCIAS Y ALGÚN TIEMPO EN TU VIDA HASTA AHORA.

 

         USA “NEVER EN NEGACIONES”

 

PAST SIMPLE:

 

·        WHEN DID YOU GO TO LONDON?

·        I WENT TO LONDON IN 1989

 

 

·        WHEN DID YOU BREAK YOUR LEG?

·        I BROKE  IT LAST JULY

 

 

         USA EL PASADO SIMPLE PARA DECIR O PREGUNTAR EXACTAMENTE “CUANDO” HA SUCEDIDO UNA ACCION.

 

         ÚSALO TAMBIEN CON YESTERDAY/LAST WEEKEND/IN 1986/SIX YEARS..

 

         ÚSALO EN PREGUNTAS QUE COMIENZAN POR WHEN? O WHAT TIME?

 

PRESENT CONTINUOUS (FUTURE)

 

 

USA EL PRESENTE CONTINUO

(+ UNA EXPRESION  DE TIEMPO FUTURA)

PARA HABLAR ACERCA DE  COMPROMISOS FUTUROS.

 

+    I’M MEETING SOME FRIENDS TOMORROW EVENING

 

     THEY AREN’T COMING TO THE PARTY ON SATURDAY

 

?    WHAT ARE YOU DOING TONIGHT?

 

 

EL GOING TO ES SIMILAR,  PRACTICAMENTE IGUAL

 

I’M GOING TO  THE THEATRE ON FRIDAY

 

(BE) + GOING TO ES POSIBLE PARA PLANES FUTUROS

 

I’M GOING TO MEET  SOME FRIENDS TONIGHT

 

PODEMOS USAR  EL PRESENTE CONTINUO PARA HABLAR  ACERCA      DE COSAS QUE ESTAN SUCEDIENDO “AHORA”,EN ESTE MOMENTO.

 

¨      NOW HE’S FLYING TO VIENA

 

¨      THIS MONDAY HE’S GOING TO THE DENTIST

 

¨      IN FACT , HE’S PLAYING SQUASH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PAST CONTINUOUS

 

STRUCTURE:

 

WAS/WERE + VERB.+ ING

 

PRESENT CONTINUOUS                                     PAST CONTINUOUS

 

I’M WORKING                                                      I WAS WORKING

 

THEY’RE GOING HOME                                     THEY WERE GOING HOME       

 

WHERE  ARE YOU GOING?                                WHERE WERE YOU GOING?

 

IT ISN’T RAINING                                                 IT WASN’T RAINING

 

IS IT SNOWING?                                                  WAS IT SNOWING?

 

YES,IT IS                                                                  YES,IT WAS              

 

 

USAMOS EL PAST CONTINUOUS PARA DESCRIBIR ACCIONES EN PROGRESO EN UN TIEMPO PASADO ESPECIFICO

 

“HABÍA”  “CONTABA”  “PERDÍA”  “HABLABA”

 

CONTANDO”  “PERDIENDO”  HABLANDO”

 

 

SE USA CUANDO DESCRIBIMOS UNA FOTO O UN DIBUJO

 

O CUANDO  CONTAMOS  UNA HISTORIA O UN CUENTO POR EJEMPLO.

 

ERAN LAS SEIS EN PUNTO Y LA GENTE LLEGABA A CASA!

 

                                                                                                                                                                 

TIEMPOS VERBALES (RESUMEN)

El PRESENTE:

 

Hay dos tipos de presente ;

el presente simple

 

 que se emplea para acciones que se realizan habitualmente,de vez en cuando,a menudo,siempre o que no se realizan nunca.

 

He lives in madrid

Does she likes fish?

They play tennis every Saturday

 

El presente continuo

 

equivale en español a estar+ gerundio .Se forma con el verbo To Be+ ing añadido al verbo que se conjuga.

 

What are you doing

It is raining

The children  are not sleeping,they are playing.

 

el pasado

 

el pasado se expresa de ESTAS maneras:

 

el simple past

 

cuando la accion tuvo lugar  en un momento concreto del pasado y ya esta completamente Terminada.

 

SE FORMA AÑADIENDO AL  VERBO LA TERMINACION ED EN FRASES AFIRMATIVAS;DID EN INTERROGATIVAS Y DID NOT(DIDN´T) EN NEGATIVAS.

 

I WORKED A LOT YESTERDAY

I WENT TO THE CINEMA ON MONDAY

HE LIVED IN MADRID IN 1986

 

el present perfect

 

CUANDO LA ACCION ,QUE COMENZÓ EN EL PASADO, CONTINUA HASTA EL PRESENTE.

 

SE FORMA CON EL PRESENTE DEL VERBO TO HAVE  SEGUIDO DEL PARTICIPIO. (3ª COLUMNA DE LOS VERBOS IRREGULARES)O EL INFINITIVO + ED EN EL CASO DE LOS REGULARES

 

 

I HAVE WORKED A LOT TODAY

I HAVE BROKEN  MY ARM

 

 

EL PAST CONTINUOUS:

 

SE FORMA CON EL PASADO  WAS/WERE+ VERB+ ING

 

 

I WAS WORKING

THEY WERE  GOING HOME

 

 

EL FUTURO DE INTENCION (GOING TO)

 

SE FORMA CON EL PRESENTE DEL VERBO TO BE  SEGUIDO DE GOING TO +UN INFINITIVO.

 

 

I AM  GOING TO BUY

WHERE ARE YOU GOING TO SEE HER TOMORROW?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RESUMEN CONCISO Y FINAL DEL PRESENTE,PASADOY FUTURO

 

TIEMPO

 

ACCION

FORMACION

EJEMPLO

TRADUCCION

PRESENT SIMPLE

ACCIONES NORMALES

QUE SE REALIZAN HABITUALMENTE

LA PROPIA

I PLAY TENNIS

YO  JUEGO AL TENIS

PRESENT CONTINUOUS

ESTA PASANDO

AHORA.

TO BE +ING

 

ESTAR + GERUNDIO

IT’S RAINING

ESTA LLOVIENDO

PRESENTE PERFECT

ACCION PASADA SIGUE AHORA.

 

CUANDO NO SE PUEDE DECIR O PREGUNTAR “CUANDO”

TO HAVE + PARTICIPIO

 

TENER + 3ª COLUMNA

I HAVE

BROKEN…

ME ROMPÍ UN HUESO.

PAST SIMPLE

EN EL PASADO Y TERMINÓ YA.

 

PARA DECIR  O PREGUNTAR EXACTAMENTE “CUANDO” HA SUCEDIDO ALGO

SE AÑADE ED

AL POSITIVO

 

Y SE USA EL AUXILIAR  DID CON PREGUNTAS Y NEGACIONES

 

ED EN  (+)

DID EN (-)  (?)

HE LIVED IN PARIS

EL VIVIO EN PARIS

PAST CONTINUOUS

ACCIONES EN PROGRESO: EMPEZÓ EN EL PASADO Y SEGUÍA SUCEDIENDO LA ACCION. HABIA,ESTABA,CONTANDO,HABLANDO..

WAS/WERE

+

VERB+ING

I WAS WORKING

YO ESTABA TRABAJANDO

FUTURE

ACCIONES FUTURAS

I’LL =

WILL (+)

 

WILL NOT = WON’T (-)

I’LL MISS THE TRAIN

 

I WON’T CATCH IT

PERDERÉ EL TREN

 

 

NO LO COGERÉ

 

TIEMPOS VERBALES DE INGLES Y SUS CORRESPONDIENTES EN ESPAÑOL

 

TO PLAY

GERUND

 

JUGANDO

PLAYING

IMPERATIVE

 

JUEGA!  JUGAD !

PLAY!

PRESENT

 

JUEGO,JUEGAS,JUEGA,JUGAMOS,JUGAIS,JUEGAN

I PLAY

PAST SIMPLE

 

JUGUÉ,JUGASTE,JUGÓ,JUGAMOS,JUGASTEIS,JUGARON

I PLAYED

FUTURE

 

JUGARÉ,JUGARÁS,JUGARÁ,JUGAREMOS,JUGAREIS,JUGARAN

I’LL PLAY

SUBJUNCTIVE

 

JUEGUE,JUEGUES,JUEGUE,JUGUEMOS,JUGUEIS,JUEGUEN

 

IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE

 

JUGARA,JUGARAS.JUGARA,JUGARAMOS,JUGARAIS,JUGARAN

 

PRESENT PERFECT

HE JUGADO, HAS JUGADO, HA JUGADO,,HEMOS JUGADO,HABEIS JUGADO  HAN JUGADO

I HAVE PLAYED

PAST CONTINUOUS

 

JUGABA,JUGABAS,JUGABA,JUGABAMOS,JUGABAIS,JUGABAN

I WAS PLAYING

 

BASIC  RULES

 

LOS  ADJETIVOS NUNCA LLEVAN  “S”

 

LOS ADJETIVOS SIEMPRE VAN DELANTE DEL NOMBRE

 

EN LAS FRASES, LAS PALABRAS TIENEN UN ORDEN FIJO:

 

SUBJECT + VERB + OBJECT + MANNER (HOW) + PLACE + TIME

 

I  FOUND THE BOOK  EASILY AT THE LIBRARY YESTERDAY

 

 

LOS ADJETIVOS NO VARÍAN NI POR GENERO NI POR NUMERO:

TALL: ALTO ,ALTA, ALTOS, ALTAS

 

NO SEPARAR EL VERBO DE SU OBJETO

 

I ENJOYED THE FILM VERY MUCH

 

SI UNA FRASE TIENE OBJETO DIRECTO Y OBJETO INDIRECTO, NORMALMENTE EL INDIRECTO VA PRIMERO:

 

SHE WROTE HIM A LETTER

 


 

 

ADJECTIVES COMPARATIVES

 

 

 

(+)   LESS +  ADJECTIVE (POSITIVE) + THAN :

MENOS ALTO QUE

 

SE USA COMO ADJETIVO DE INFERIORIDAD EN COMPARATIVOS;

 

TO   REVERSE THE COMPARISON

 

“louis  is less tall than john”

 

 

 

(+)   AS + ADJECTIVE  (POSITIVE) +  AS :

 TAN ALTO COMO

 

SE USA COMO ADJETIVO DE IGUALDAD EN COMPARATIVOS

 

TO SAY TWO NOUNS ARE  THE SAME

 

“louis IS  AS TALL  AS JOHN”

 

 

 

(-) NOT AS  + ADJECTIVE (POSITIVE) + AS :

NO ES TAN ALTO COMO

 

SE USA PARA DECIR QUE EL PRIMER NOMBRE ES MENOS QUE EL SEGUNDO

 

TO SAY  THE FIRST NOUN IS LESS (ADJECTIVE) THAN THE SECOND

 

“LOUIS IS NOT AS TALL AS JOHN”

 


 

FORM OF ADVERB:

Structure:

 

ADJECTIVE+ LY

 

           ADJECTIVE                                                                            ADVERB

HE’S A BAD PLAYER                                           HE PLAYS BADLY

 

 

THEY’RE A VERY GOOD TEAM   …:  THEY PLAY VERY WELL

I’M A SLOW READER…………………….:  I READ SLOWLY

HE ISN’T A FAST RUNNER ……………: HE DOESN’T RUN FAST

SHE’S A HARD WORK……………………: SHE WORKS HARD

 

 

MAKE SIX SENTENCES COMPARING  MEN AND WOMEN

 

WOMEN DRIVES MORE SLOWLY THAN MEN

MEN DRESS WORSE THAN  WOMEN

WOMEN  TEACHS ENGLISH  BETTER  DEAF MEN

WOMEN WORK AS HARD AS MEN

WOMEN AS DON’T THINK LOGICALLY AS MEN

 

ADVERBS

COMPARATIVE ADVERBS

REGULAR

 

SLOWLY

HEALTHILY

 

 

MORE SLOWLY

LESS HEALTHILY

IRREGULAR

 

HARD

FAST

WELL

BADLY

A LOT

A LITLE

 

 

HARDER

FASTER

BETTER

WORSE

MORE

LESS

 

 

PARA COMPARAR DOS ACCIONES,SE USA :

EL ADVERBIO COMPARATIVO+ THAN 

 

formacion  del comparativo y del superlativo

 

añadiendo al positivo –er para el comparativo

AÑADIENDO AL POSITIVO –est para el superlativo

 

TODOS LOS MONOSILABOS:

 

TALL             TALLER                   THE TALLEST

LONG            LONGER                THE LONGEST

SHORT         SHORTER                THE SHORTEST

OLD              OLDER                    THE OLDEST

SAFE             SAFER                     THE SAFEST

 

LOS BISILABOS TERMINADOS EN –Y

 

HAPPY        HAPPIER                   THE HAPPIEST

NOISY         NOISIER                   THE NOISIEST                                                                               

DIRTY         DIRTIER                   THE DIRTIEST                                                                   

 

LOS BISILABOS  Y POLISILABOS

 

Anteponiendo al positivo la palabra more (más) para el comparativo

 

y the most (el que más) para el Superlativo.

 

 

BORING                             MORE BORING                      THE MOST BORING

BEAUTIFUL                      MORE BEAUTIFUL                  THE MOST BEAUTIFUL

INTELLIGENT                 MORE INTELLIGENT            THE  MOST BEAUTIFUL

 

 

IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES

 

GOOD                  BETTER                THE BEST

BAD                     WORSE                 THE WORST

FAR                     FARTHER             THE FARTHEST                                                   

 

 

RESUMEN

 

(+)   LESS +  ADJECTIVE (POSITIVE) + THAN : MENOS ALTO QUE

(+)   AS + ADJECTIVE  (POSITIVE) +  AS :           TAN ALTO COMO

(-)   NOT AS  + ADJECTIVE (POSITIVE) + AS : NO ES TAN ALTO COMO

 

 

COMPARATIVES ADVERBS

 

ADVERBS

COMPARATIVE ADVERBS

REGULAR

 

SLOWLY

HEALTHILY

 

 

MORE SLOWLY

LESS HEALTHILY

IRREGULAR

 

HARD

FAST

WELL

BADLY

A LOT

A LITLE

 

 

HARDER

FASTER

BETTER

WORSE

MORE

LESS

 

 

PARA COMPARAR DOS ACCIONES,SE USA EL ADVERBIO COMPARATIVO+ THAN 

 

ADJECTIVES SUPERLATIVES

 

ADJECTIVE

COMPARATIVE

SUPERLATIVE

SPELLING

TALL

HAPPY

TALLER

HAPPIER

THE TALLEST

THE HAPPIEST

+EST

MODERN

EXPENSIVE

MORE MODERN

MORE EXPENSIVE

THE MOST MODERN

THE MOST EXPENSIVE

+ THE MOST

GOOD

BAD

FAR

BETTER

WORSE

FARTHER

THE BEST

THE WORST

THE FARTHEST

IRREGULAR

 

 

 

 

opposites

 

 

 

  climb up a mountain

  climb down a mountain

 

 

  get in the car

  get out off the car

 

  get on a bus/plane/train

  get off a bus/plane/train

 

  go downstairs

  go upstairs

 

  go under a bridge

  go over  a bridge

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

return to africa

 

-Teresa Dunn  her father :Thomas Dunn.

-Anna Holmes is the woman white hair.

-Dr. McCall is Thomas Dunn’s  friend.

 

Dr. MacCall

 

-Teresa went to the hospital (Kenya).

 

-Dr.MacCall has discovered a medicine woman near Lake Victoria   who can prevent a terrible sickness.

 

-The eyes become red and tired,and under a microscope you can see silver lines in them.

 

-She’s found a special flower.She gives it to the young people.Then  they don’t get  river blindness.

 

F.D.I.=American Drug Company

 

LUNCH WITH A REPORTER (CRISTOPHER WHALE)

 

-The reporter  was working until three o’clock,he was writing about that Chinese man.

 

-The reporter know  a Dr.MacCall and  he knows that Dr.MacCall is working  on something very secret.

 

-Teresa discover a copy of his newspaper “The African Telegraph”.

 

-Is this why Dr.MacCall wants the medicine woman and her flower to be a secret ? Money !

 

 

THE MEDICINE WOMAN

 

-The driver is Obediah.

-In Africa The women do the work.

-About five o’clock they arrived in the Nandi area.

-The medicine woman lived several kms. Away in the forest.

-Rose is the medicine woman.

-Harriet is one of her grandchildren.

 

THE SECRET LEAVES

 

-Teresa followed Rose and Harriet into the forest.

-The tree was tall and had swall,yellow-green leaves.

-Now, let’s wake a fire and we will boil the leaves three times.

 

A STRANGE DREAM

 

-She began to feel very sleepy.Her head felt very light.

-She was dreaming about a huge wild animal.It was coming  closer  and closer.

-It want to eat her.

ANNA HELPS

 

-Teresa woke up in her tent.

-Teresa said I’m in trouble.Anna Holmes.

-She’ll call for take to Nairobi by plane;then  you can  tell your secret to everyone.

-Two hours later Teresa was in Nairobi

 

 

 

 

 

 

TERESA GOES TO A MEETING

 

-Teresa and Mwale ran into the U.I. Building.

-They want speak to speak to the director Dr.Ndeti.

-Dr.MacCall was sitting there  and smiling at her .

 

 

A HAPPY ENDING

 

-Teresa and Mwale were having lunch in a restaurant.


-Teresa will stay to Africa because she loves the space,the sky,the birds.

-She’s going to help Dr.MacCall in his hospitala and Mwale could give hera job as a reporte.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FIRST CONDITIONAL

 

USAMOS EL FIRST CONDITIONAL PARA HABLAR ACERCA DE

 

POSIBLES SITUACIONES FUTURAS:

 

SI YO TE PRESTO MI PERIODICO,EMPEZARÍAMOS A HABLAR…

 

¨      IF I LEND MY NEWSPAPER,WE’LL START TALKING.

¨      IF WE START TALKING,WE’LL BECOME FRIENDS.

¨      IF WE BECOME FRIENDS,I’LL INVITE YOU TO MY HOUSE.

¨      IF I INVITE YOU TO MY HOUSE,YOU’LL MEET  MY DAUGHTER,YVETTE.

¨      IF  YOU MEET YVETTE,YOU’LL FALL IN LOVE  WITH HER.

¨      IF YOU FALL IN LOVE  WITH HER,YOU’LL RUN AWAY TOGETHER.

¨     IF YOU RUN AWAY TOGETHER WITH HER,I’LL FIND YOU.

¨     IF I FIND YOU,I’LL KILL YOU.

¨     SO,THAT’S WHY I DON’T WANT TO LEND YOU MY NEWSPAPER.

 

FORMACION:

 

IF + SUBJECT + PRESENT SIMPLE, AND…  WILL/WON’T + INFINITIVE

 

POSITIVO

I’LL MISS THE TRAIN. 

YOU’LL MISS THE TRAIN.      

IF IT RAINS,WE’LL STAY IN.

IF IT RAINS, WE WON’T GO OUT.

NEGATIVO

I WON’T CATCH IT.

YOU WON’T CATCH IT.

INTERROGATIVO

WILL YOU TELL HIM? 

YES I WILL/NO I WON’T.

 

SOME; ANY; NO …. BODY; THING; WHERE

 

 

POSITIVAS

INTERROGATIVAS Y NEGATIVAS

NEGATIVAS Y COMO SUJETO

PEOPLE

SOMEBODY

SOMEONE

ANYBODY

ANYONE

NOBODY

NO ONE

THINGS

SOMETHING

ANYTHING

NOTHING

PLACES

SOMEWHERE

ANYWHERE

NOWEHERE

 

 

SOME…..: ORACIONES AFIRMATIVAS

ANY……..:  ORACIONES NEGATIVAS E INTERROGATIVAS

 

I HAVEN’T GOT  ANY MONEY (NEGATIVA)

THERE ARE  SOME BISCUITS IN THE CUPBOARD (POSITIVA)

THERE ISN’T ANY MILK (NEGATIVA)

HAVE YOU GOT ANY BROTHERS OR SISTERS? (INTERROG.)

ARE THERE N ANY SHOPS NEAR HERE ? (INTERROG.)

 

 

EXCEPCIONES:

 

SOME…..: CUANDO SE PREGUNTA POR ALGO

          CUANDO SE OFRECE ALGO

(WOULD YOU LIKE SOME COFFEE ?)

 

EN RESPUESTAS CORTAS Y USANDOLO COMO SUJETO:NOBODY/NOTHING…

 

WHO’S IN THE BATHROOM ? NOBODY

NOBODY’S THE BATHROOM

 

 

 

 

NOTAR QUE :

 

EN LAS CONDICIONES EMPLEAMOS SOME (AFIRMACIONES)

Y  EN LAS PREGUNTAS,YA USAMOS EL ANY.

 

 

 

POSITIVAS

INTERROGATIVAS Y NEGATIVAS

NEGATIVAS Y COMO SUJETO

PEOPLE

SOMEBODY

SOMEONE

ANYBODY

ANYONE

NOBODY

NO ONE

THINGS

SOMETHING

ANYTHING

NOTHING

PLACES

SOMEWHERE

ANYWHERE

NOWEHERE

 

SOME…..: ORACIONES AFIRMATIVAS

ANY……..:  ORACIONES NEGATIVAS E INTERROGATIVAS

 

USAMOS EL FIRST CONDITIONAL PARA HABLAR ACERCA DE

 

POSIBLES SITUACIONES FUTURAS:

 

FORMACION:

 

IF + SUBJECT + PRESENT SIMPLE, AND…  WILL/WON’T + INFINITIVE

 

ADVERBS

COMPARATIVE ADVERBS

REGULAR

 

SLOWLY

HEALTHILY

 

 

MORE SLOWLY

LESS HEALTHILY

IRREGULAR

 

HARD

FAST

WELL

BADLY

A LOT

A LITLE

 

 

HARDER

FASTER

BETTER

WORSE

MORE

LESS

 

 

PARA COMPARAR DOS ACCIONES,SE USA EL ADVERBIO COMPARATIVO+ THAN 

 

ADJECTIVES SUPERLATIVES

 

ADJECTIVE

COMPARATIVE

SUPERLATIVE

SPELLING

TALL

HAPPY

TALLER

HAPPIER

THE TALLEST

THE HAPPIEST

+EST

MODERN

EXPENSIVE

MORE MODERN

MORE EXPENSIVE

THE MOST MODERN

THE MOST EXPENSIVE

+ THE MOST

GOOD

BAD

FAR

BETTER

WORSE

FARTHER

THE BEST

THE WORST

THE FARTHEST

IRREGULAR

 

 

SET PHRASES  =  FRASE HECHAS

 

THE SAME AS                 IGUAL QUE

 

DIFERENT FROM          DIFERENTE DE

 

AS MUCH AS                   TANTO

 

AS MANY AS                   TANTOS

 

DOES IT SOUND  TO YOU ?   TE SUENA?

 

ARE YOU FAMILIAR WITH IT ?            TE RESULTA FAMILIAR?

 

FROM THE MOST TO THE LEAST         DE MAS A MENOS

 

TO GIVE SPEECHES      DAR DISCURSOS

 

ACTUALLY…                   ESTOO… BUENOO…

 

I CAN’T STAND YOU !   NO TE SOPORTO!

 

HOLD ON,HOLD ON,HOLD ON.   ESPERA,TRANQUI TRONCO.

 

HAVEN’T YOU   NO ES ASÍ.

 

OF COURSE NOT    POR SUPUESTO QUE NO!

 

WASN’T IT ?   NO FUE ASÍ ? 

 

DOES IT   NO ES ASÍ ?

 

FOR AGES   MUCHO TIEMPO

 

 

 

 

PRESENT PERFECT + FOR/SINCE

 

SINCE= DESDE

 

SINCE + UN PUNTO FIJO EN EL TIEMPO

 

FECHA (6TH JUNE) – A MONTH (JULY) –  A YEAR (1998)

 

SHE’S LIVED  IN SPAIN  SINCE 1991

 

 

FOR= DESDE HACE…

 

FOR + UN PERIODO DE TIEMPO

 

10 MINUTOS – 2 HORAS – 4 DIAS – 3 AÑOS

 

SHE’S LIVED IN SPAIN FOR 8 YEARS

 

USAMOS EL PRESENT PERFECT PARA HABLAR  DE ACCIONES QUE EMPEZARON EN EL PASADO Y AUN SIGUEN

 

PARA RESPONDER A LA PREGUNTA HOW LONG ?

 

USAMOS   FOR + UN PERIODO DE TIEMPO

SINCE + UN PUNTO FIJO EN EL TIEMPO

 

RECORDAR LA DIFERENCIA ENTRE …

 

EL PRESENTE  PERFECT  Y EL PAST SIMPLE:

 

I’VE BEEN  A TEACHER FOR THREE YEARS..:    I’M A TEACHER NOW

 

I WAS A TEACHER FOR THREE YEARS ..: I’M NOT A TEACHER NOW

 

 

 

WOULD LIKE +TO + INFINITIVO

 

WOULD YOU LIKE TO…

 

GO AND WORK IN A FOREING COUNTRY ?

TRAVEL AROUND EUROPE BY BUS ?

TO  BUY A NEW FLAT ?

 

TAMBIEN:

 

DECIDED + TO + INF

PLAN + TO + INF

HOPE + TO + INF

WANT + TO + INF

NEED + TO + INF  ETC.ETC…

 

USAMOS EL WOULD LIKE TO + INFINITIVO PARA HABLAR  ACERCA DE LO QUE YO QUIERO HACER AHORA  O EN EL FUTURO.

 

SE TRADUCE COMO……TE GUSTARÍA ?

 

SE USA PARA PREGUNTAR COSAS ESPECIFICAS!!!

 

LIKE + VERBO+ING

GERUNDIO

 

DO YOU LIKE ….

MEETING  NEW PEOPLE ?

WEARING THE LATEST FASHIONS ?

COOKING?

 

TAMBIEN:

 DO YOU LOVE…SWIMMING ?

DO YOU HATE…STUDYING?

 

USAMOS EL LIKE + VERBO+ ING PARA HABLAR ACERCA DE LO QUE ME GUSTA / NO ME GUSTA

 

TE GUSTA ?

PARA COSAS GENERALES

 

EXERCICES ABOUT

 AUXILIARY / NOT AUXILIARY

Si la palabra pregunta (who,when,what,es el sujeto del verbo,no usamos do/does/did/

 

1.      WHO DIRECTED PSYCHO IN 1960?

 

2.      WHICH COUNTRY WON THE WORLD CUP …?

 

3.      WHO MADE  THE RECORD THRILLER IN 1988?

 

4.      WHICH SPANISH PAINTER  DIED IN 1988 ?

 

5.      WHICH AMERICAN ACTOR WON OSCARS FOR PHILADELPHIA  IN 1994 AND FORREST GUMP IN 1995 ?

 

6.      WHICH FAMOUS SINGER WAS A FOOTBALLER FOR REAL MADRID?

 

7.      WHO BECAME PRESIDENT  AFTER 25 YEARS IN PRISON?

 

8.      WHEN  NEIL ARMSTRONG WALK ON THE MOON?

 

9.      WHICH BRITISH WRITER WROTE  ANIMAL FARM  IN 1984?

 

10.  WHICH SWEDISH ACTRESS SAID “I WANT TO BE ALONE”

 

11.  WHICH PRESIDENT WON THE NOBEL PEACE PRIZE IN 1990?

 

12.  WHICH COUNTRY BUILT THE WORLD’S FIRST COMPUTER IN 1946?

 

13.  WHO WROTE MURDER ON THE ORIENT EXPRESS?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

USO DEL GERUNDIO

 

GERUNDIO=VERB + ING

 

1.    USAMOS EL GERUNDIO  DESPUES DE LOS VERBOS DE “SENTIMIENTO”  

2.     

LIKE / LOVE / HATE / ENJOY / MIND / PREFER

 

I DON’T  MIND COOKING BUT I HATE WASHING- UP

I LOVE SHOPPING

 

2. DESPUES DE LAS PREPOSICIONES

 

I’M GOOD AT FINDING BARGAINS

I’M GOOD AT COOKING

 

3.CUANDO USAMOS EL VERBO COMO SUJETO DE LA FRASE

 

BUYING THINGS OFTEN TAKES ME A LONG TIME

SWIMMING IS THE BEST FORM OF EXERCISE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AS & LIKE

 

 

USAMOS LIKE  O AS PARA DECIR COSAS QUE SON SIMILARES

 

LIKE:

ES UNA PREPOSICION

 

HE RAN LIKE THE WIND

 

ADEMAS DE USARLO  COMO PREPOSICION,TAMBIEN SE USA

 

PARA DAR EJEMPLOS;

BEAUTIFUL LIKE A RAINBOW

 

 

AS:

ES UNA CONJUNCION

 

ON FRIDAY AS ON TUESDAY ,THE MEETING WILL BE  AT 8:30

ADEMAS DE USARLO COMO CONJUNCION,LO USAMOS EN

 

LAS PROFESIONES:

HE WORKED AS A WAITER FOR TWO YEARS

 

 

ANOTHER

 

1.USAMOS ANOTHER + NOMBRE EN SINGULAR

 

WOULD YOU LIKE ANOTHER POTATO?

 

2.USAMOS ANOTHER + FEW/NUMBER + NOMBRE EN PLURAL

 

I’M STAYING FOR ANOTHER FEW WEEKS

 

VERB PATTERNS

VERB + ING

·       LIKE

·       LOVE

·       ENJOY

·       FINISH                            VERBS OF

·       MIND                               EMOTION

·       SUGGEST

·       STOP

 

VERB + TO + INFINITIVE

 

·       AGREE

·       CHOOSE

·       DECIDE

·       EXPECT

·       FORGET

·       HELP

·       HOPE

·       MANAGE

·       PROMISE

·       REFUSE                                              VERBS OF

·       TRY                                                    INTENTION 

·       WANT

·       WOULD LIKE

·       WOULD LOVE

·       WOULD PREFER

·       NEED

·       OFFER

·       PLAN

·       LEARN

 

 

DESCRIBIENDO GENTE:

LOOK / LOOK LIKE

 

SE USAN LOS DOS TERMINOS PARA DESCRIBIR: “MI IMPRESIÓN

 

USAMOS LOOK + ADJETIVO PARA DESCRIBIR LA  ( PERSONALIDAD)

 

WHAT’S HE LIKES ?  HE’S QUITE SHY

SHE LOOKS A FRENCH

HE LOOKS FRIENDLY

 

HOW OLD DO YOU THINK THEY ARE?

SHE LOOKS ABOUT 34

 

USAMOS LOOK LIKE + NOMBRE PARA DESCRIBIR LA  (APARIENCIA)

 


WHAT DOES HE LOOK LIKE ?   HE’S TALL

SHE LOOKS LIKE AN ACTRESS 

 

 

QUANTIFIERS

 

(CANTIDADES)

 

PARA GRANDES CANTIDADES:

 

MANERA                   CONTABLE              INCONTABLE

 

POSITIVO                            A LOT /LOTS OF                  A LOT/ LOTS OF

NEGATIVO                          (NOT) MANY                       (NOT) MUCH

INTERROGATIVO             HOW MANY?                      HOW MUCH?

 

PARA PEQUEÑAS CANTIDADES:

 

 

MANERA                   CONTABLE              INCONTABLE

 

POSITIVO                                         A FEW                                   A LITTLE

                                                           VERY FEW                           VERY LITTLE

INTERROGATIVO                         HOW MANY?                      HOW MUCH?

 

 

I HAVE  GOT A LOT OF ( + I ) BOOKS, BUT I HAVEN’T GOT  MANY ( – C) CDs, AND I’VE HAVE ONLY GOT A FEW TAPES.

 

THEY DRANK A LOT OF ( + I ) WINE,NOT MUCH  ( – I ) BEER , AND VERY LITTLE LEMONADE.

 

HOW MUCH (¿  I ) COKE DID THEY DRINK? HOW MANY ( ¿ I ) CRISPS DID THEY EAT?

(RECORDAR : LOS NOMBRES QUE TERMINANEN S SON CONTABLES)

 


                 INCONTABLE                                                            CONTABLE

MISMOS SIGNIFICADOS

 

MORE THAN                                                          OVER

 

THE NOUN FROM UNEMPLOYED                   UNEMPLOYEMENT

 

TOO FULL OF PEOPLE                                         OVER POPULATION

 

COVERED WITH SNOW                                      CAPPED  (CUBRIÓ)

 

SMOKE AND FOG TOGETHER                          POLLUTION/ OR SMOG

 

A LINE OF CARS  WHICH HAVE STOPPED    JAMS

 

TAKING THE AIR                                                 BREATHING

 

GETTING BETTER                                    IMPROVING          

 

 

 

TOO / TOO MUCH / TOO MANY /ENOUGH / NOT ENOUGH

 

 

PARA DECIR QUE HAY MAS DE LO QUE NECESITO,USAMOS:

 

TOO + ADJETIVO

TOO MUCH +NOMBRE INCONTABLE

TOO MANY + NOMBRE CONTABLE

 

 

ENOUGH

 

PARA DECIR  QUE  TENGO TODO LO QUE NECESITO,USAMOS:

 

ENOUGH =SUFICIENTE

 

ONE / ONES

 

USAMOS EL ADJETIVO + ONE / ONES EN LUGAR DEL ADJETIVO + EL NOMBRE:

 

THE RED BAG = THE RED ONE

THE BIG CAR  = THE BIG ONE

 

 

BUYING CLOTHES

 

HAVE YOU GOT THOSE JEANS IN MY SIZE ?

WICH ONES ?

THE RED ONES

WHAT SIZE ARE YOU?

I’M 42

LET’S SEE. HERE YOU ARE

CAN I TRY THEM ON?

YES THERE’S A CHANGING ROOM OVER THERE

THEY’RE A BIT TOO SMALL.HAVE YOU GOT A BIGGER SIZE?

THESE ARE A 44 ONES

YES,THESE ARE FINE .OK,I’LL TAKE THEM

ANYTHING ELSE?

NO THANKS.HOW MUCH ARE THEY?

THEY’RE 49,96 $

THANK YOU

 

SPORTS

 

GO  / PLAY /  DO

 

GO + VERB+ ING..:

GO SAILING,GO DIVING,GO WINDSURFING

 

PLAY + SPORTS WITH A BALL..:

 

PLAY FOOTBALL, PLAY TENNIS, PLAY BASKETBALL

DO + EXERCISE+ AND MARTIAL ARTS…:


DO KARATE, DO GIMNASTICS, DO JOGGING

 

 

PRESENT PERFECT + ALREADY / YET

 

PRESENT PERFECT + ALREADY

 

SIGNIFICA “YA” CON ORIENTACION AFIRMATIVA,POR LO QUE SE EMPLEA EN:

 

FRASES AFIRMATIVAS:

 

THEY’VE ALREADY FINISHED..:YA HAN TERMINADO

THEY’VE FINISHED ALREADY..: HAN TERMINADO YA

 

FRASES INTERROGATIVAS A LAS QUE SE ESPERA UNA RESPUESTA AFIRMATIVA :

 

HAVE YOU FINISHED ALREADY?..:HAS TERMINADO YA?

(SABEMOS QUE ES ASÍ Y ESPERAMOS UNA CONFIRMACIÓN)

 

PRESENT PERFEC +  YET

 

SIGNIFICA :

“TODAVÍA” EN FRASES NEGATIVAS

I HAVEN’T FINISHED YET…: NO HE TERMINADO TODAVÍA

 

“YA” EN FRASES INTERROGATIVAS

HAVE YOU FINISHED YET?..:HAS TERMINADO YA?

 

NORMALMENTE SE COLOCA AL FINAL DE LA FRASE

 

LAS DOS SIGNIFICAN “YA” EN FRASES INTERROGATIVAS, PERO SE UTILIZA:

 

ALREADY:

 

EN PREGUNTAS  A LAS QUE SE ESPERA UNA RESPUESTA AFIRMATIVA:

HAVE YOU FINISHED ALREADY?

 

SABEMOS QUE ES ASÍ Y ESPERAMOS UNA CONFIRMACIÓN

 

 

 

YET:

 

EN PREGUNTAS CUYA RESPUESTA  PUEDE SER LO MISMO AFIRMATIVA QUE NEGATIVA:

HAVE YOU FINISHED YET?

 

NO LO SABEMOS Y PEDIMOS INFORMACIÓN

 

JUST

 

EL ADVERBIO JUST,TIENE LOS SIGUIENTES SIGNIFICADOS Y USOS PRINCIPALES:

 

“EXACTAMENTE”     “JUSTAMENTE”

 

THAT’S JUST WHAT I WANTED:ESO ES EXACTAMENTE LO QUE QUERÍA

 

SOLAMENTE”

 

WE HAVE JUST ENOUGH FOR US:TENEMOS SOLAMENTE LO SUFICIENTE PARA NOSOTROS

 

“ACABAR  DE”

 

CON EL PRESENT PERFECT; SE INTERCALA ENTRE EL

  VERBO TO HAVE Y EL PARTICIPIO:

 

 I’VE JUST SEEN HER: ACABO DE VERLA

 

NO SE TRADUCE EN:

 

COMO REFUERZO DEL IMPERATIVO:JUST LISTEN TO ME!

ESCUCHAME!

 

 

 

 

PRESENTE PERFECT + ALREADY / YET/ JUST  EXERCISES

 

CAN I BORROW  YOUR NEWSPAPER ?

SORRY,I HAVEN’T  FINISHED IT YET

 

WOULD YOU LIKE A COFFEE ?

NO THANKS I’VE JUST HAD ONE

 

DID YOU BUY ANY MILK?

NO, I HAVEN’T BEEN TO THE SUPERMARKET

 

YOUR HAIER LOOKS NICE

THANKS.I’VE JUST WASHED IT

 

I LIKE YOUR SHOES

THANKS.I’VE JUST BOUGHT.THEM

 

HAVE YOU FINISHED YOUR HOMEWORK?

NO,I’ HAVEN’T STARTED YET

 

DON’T FORGET TO BUY THE TICKETS

I’VE ALREADY GOT THEM

 

YOU LOOK SMILY

I’VE JUST HAD SOME GOOD NEWS

 

ARE YOU HUNGRY?

NO.I ’VE JUST HAD A SANDWICH

 

CAN YOU LEND ME SOME  MONEY?

SORRY,I HAVEN’TVE BEEN TO THE BANK YET

 

DO YOU WANT A ICE CREAM?

NO,THANKS.I’VE ALREADY  HAD ONE

 

HAVE YOU BOOKED THE TABLE?

YES,I’VE ALREADY DONE IT

 

YOU LIKE TIRED

I’VE JUST GOT UP

 

WOULD YOU LIKE TO SEE  DRACULA?

NO,THANKS.I’VE ALREADY SEEN IT

 

 

RESPUESTAS A:WHY?

 

PARA RESPONDER A PREGUNTAS CON WHY?

 

USAMOS:

 

 TO + INFINITIVO

O

FOR + NOUM

 

I WENT TO IRELAND / I WENT TO SEE SOME FRIEND

 

WHY DID YOU GO THERE ? /  I WENT  THERE FOR A HOLIDAY

 

USAMOS TAMBIEN:

 

BECAUSE +  SUBJECT + VERB

 

WHY DID  HE GO TO THE BANK?   / BECAUSE HE  WANTED TO GET SOME MONEY

 

EXAMPLES: OF  TO+ INFINITIVO

 

HE NEEDED A VISA  TO GO TO CHINA

HE’S GONE TO THE BANK TO ORDER SOME  DOLLARS

I’M GOING BACK TO THE HOTEL TO HAVE A REST

HE DROVE TO THE  AIRPORT TO PICK UP HIS FRIEND

WE PHONED THE TRAVEL AGENCY TO CONFIRM THE FLIGHT

SHE SENT A FAX TO CANCEL HER TICKET

 

NO SE USA FOR  CON TO + INFINITIVO

 

TO GO STRAIGHT TO THE  POINT

IR DIRECTAMENTE AL GRANO


 

 

MY FAVOURITE PHOTO IS OF MY WIFE NINI IN OUR TERRACE .

SHE’S PREGNANT OF LITTLE ÁLVARO.

 

SHE’S A LOVELY AND TENDER SMILE.

I TOOK THIS PHOTO IN 1989, FOUR MONTHS BEFORE THE BIRTH. AND OUR DAUGHTER IS NEXT TO NINI .

SHE’S JUST LIKE A LITTLE  GIRL

 

I REMEMBER THIS DAY ALREADY.

 

I REMEMBER THAT SHE’S SURROUNDED OF PLANTS, MAKING JOKES WITH ME, AND SPEAKING ABOUT OUR CHILDREN.

 

I MET NINI IN THE BEACH, IN CHILCHES COSTA AND WE FELL IN LOVE INMEDIATELY.I THOUGHT:

THAT’S JUST WATH I WANT!!

 

 

TODAY, ALVARITO IS NINE ,AND HE’S JUST LIKE A MAN.

WE ARE A HAPPY FAMILY.

 

             õ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PHRASAL VERBS

 

LOS VERBOS FRASALES,SON VERBOS QUE VAN ACOMPAÑADOS DE UNA PARTICULA  (ON,OFF,DOWN,IN…ETC.) QUE ADQUIEREN UN NUEVO SIGNIFICADO,

 

CON LA MAYORÍA DE LOS VERBOS FRASALES,SI EL OBJETO ES UN NOMBRE,EL OBJETO SE PUEDE PONER ENTRE EL VERBO Y LA PARTICULA.

EJEMPLO:

PUT ON YOUR COAT / PUT YOUR COAT ON

HE TOOK OUT HIS WALLET / HE TOOKHIS WALLET OUT

 

CUANDO EL OBJETO ES UN PRONOMBRE,ESTE SIEMPRE

VA ENTRE EL  VERBO Y LA PARTICULA.

EJEMPLO:

PUT IT ON.

 

                VERB                            TAKE OUT                               PARTICLE                                                           

                          OBJECT                             OBJECT

 

 

HE TOOK OUT HIS WALLET         HE TOOK IT OUT

 

CAN I TRY ON  THIS DRESS ?

CAN I TRY THIS DRESS ON ?

CAN I TRY “THEM” ON

 

VERBOS FRASALES (I) :

 

TURN OFF                APAGAR                   TURN ON                 ENCENDER

TURN UP                  SUBIR                       TURN DOWN          BAJAR

TAKE  OFF               QUITARSE ROPA   PUT ON                     PONERSE ROPA

GO IN                        ENTRAR                   GO OUT                    SALIR

GO UP                       SUBIR                       GO DOWN                BAJAR

GO BACK                 REGRESAR             GO ON                      SEGUIR

STAND UP                PONERSE DE PIE   STAND DOWN        AGACHARSE

GET UP                     LEVANTARSE         GET IN                      SUBIR (CAR)

GET OUT                  BAJAR (CAR)          PICK UP                    RECOGER

SWITCH ON             ENCHUFAR             SWITCH OFF           DESENCHUFAR

RING UP                   TELEFONEAR         TAKE AWAY            RETIRAR

TAKE OUT               SACAR                      BRING IN                 METER

 

 

 

 

PUT OFF                   APLAZAR                 FILL IN                     RELLENAR IMP.

GIVE UP                    DEJAR                      SEE OFF                    DESPEDIR   

LOOK AFTER          VIGILAR                  LOOK FOR               BUSCAR

 

BORED OR BORING?

 

BORED                                             FOR PEOPLE

BORING                                           FOR THINGS

 

 

SHOULD / SHOULDN’T +INFINITIVO (SIN TO)

DEBERÍA / NO DEBERÍA

IGUAL PARA TODAS LAS PERSONAS !

EJEMPLOS:

 

I SHOULD GO TO THE E.O.I.

I SHOULDN’T GO ON HOLIDAYS

 

I SHOULD REST

I SHOULDN’T DRIVE MY CAR

 

YOU SHOULD WEAR A TIE

YOU SHOULDN’T

 

TO BE OBSSESED WITH…

ESTAR OBSESIONADO CON…

 

GO UP MORE

SALIR MAS

 

TO FILL THE TANK


LLENAR EL DEPOSITO

 

 

GET

 

                        RECEIVE (RECIBIR)

 

                        + ADJETIVE =BECOME LLEGAR A SER/ESTAR

GET

                        ARRIVE (LLEGAR A CASA,LLEGAR AL TRABAJO)

 

                        PHRASAL VERB

 

 

Echo questions

 

USAMOS LAS ECHO QUESTIONS PARA DEMOSTRAR  INTERES Y SORPRESA

 

SE FORMA CON : EL VERBO AUXILIAR  + EL PRONOMBRE SUJETO

 

AUX+ (I, YOU, HE, SHE,.IT, WE, THEY)

 

HANA SMOKES                                            DOES SHE ?

I DIDN’T ENJOY IT                                 DIDN’T YOU ?

I’LL HELP YOU                                           WILL YOU ?

I DON’T LIKE FLYING                            DON’T YOU ?

SHE CAN’T SWING                                    CAN’T SHE ?

I WAS IN N. Y                                                 WAS YOU ?

HE MET HIS WIFE IN OSLO                           DID HE ?

WE’VE BEEN MARRIED                            HEVE  WE ?

MY SISTER DIDN’T LIKE IT                 DIDN’T SHE ?

SHE PREFERS THRILLERS                      DOES SHE ?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AUXILIARES

 

VERBO          INFINITIVO              PRESENTE               PASADO            PART.

                                                                             I   AM

BE                          TO BE                                   WE,THEY,YOU..ARE               WAS                       BEEN    

HE,SHE,IT…IS

 

HAVE                    TO HAVE                           I,WE,THEY,YOU..HAVE     HAD                 HAD

     HE,SHE,IT….HAD

 

DO                         TO DO                                I, WE,THEY,YOU,…DO         DID              DONE

                                                                       HE,SHE.IT…..DOES

CAN                  TO BE ABLE                                      CAN                                COULD                BEEN ABLE

 

WILL                                                                              WILL                               WOULD          AUX.FUTURO

 

SHALL                                                                          SHALL                                                     AUX.FUTURO

 

SO / NEITHER DO I

 

PARA FORMA R ORACIONES PARA ESTAR / NO ESTAR  DE ACUERDO:

 

 

TO AGREE:

SO + AUXILIARY + SUJETO

CON ORACION AFIRMATIVA

 

I SAW THE FILM  YO HE VISTO LA PELICULA

SO DID I                                            YO TAMBIEN

 

(AQUÍ SO SUSTITUYE AL VERBO PREVIAMENTE MENCIONADO)

 

 

NEITHER + AUXILIAR+SUJETO

CON ORACION NEGATIVA

 

I DIDN’T SEE THE FILM

NO ME GUSTÓ LA PELICULA

NEITHER DID I                           A MÍ TAMPOCO

 

 

TO DISAGREE:

 

I DON’T LIKE CARTOONS     

   N O ME GUSTAN LAS PELICULAS DE DIBUJOS

NEITHER DO I        NI AMI

 

SUJETO +  AUXILIAR

Si no estas de acuerdo,es lo contrario;lo afirmativo a negativo y lo negativo a afirmativo

 

I DON’T LIKE                                  NO ME GUSTA

NEITHER DO I                                A MI TAMPOCO

NEITHER AM I                              YO TAMPOCO SOY

SO DO I                                            YO TAMBIEN

ME TOO                                           YO TAMBIEN

NEITHER TOO                                YO TAMPOCO

I DON’T                                            YO NO !

 

SO+AUX.+SUBJ.                 (ORAC. POSITIVAS)

NEITHER+AUX+SUBECT   (ORAC.NEGATIV.)

SUBJ.+AUX.

 

 

 

 

 

                                                       AGREEE          DISAGREE

 

1. I REALLY LIKE POP MUSIC                       SO DO I                    I  DON’T

 

2.I DON’T LIKE CHICKEN                    NEITHER DO I                   I DON’T

 

3.I HAVE  GOT A COMPUTER                     SO HAVE I                   I HAVEN’T                  

4.I CAN’T SPEAK DUTCH                 NEITHER CAN I                   I CAN’T

 

5.I WENT TO THE CITY                                   SO DID  I                   I DIDN’T

 

6.I DIDNT GO TO THE  CIRCO        NEITHER  DID I                    I DIDN’T

 

7.I HAVEN’T BEEN TO BRAZIL    NEITHER HAVE I                    I HAVEN’T

 

8.I’M GOING TO THE PARTY TONIGHT    SO AM I         I’ M NOT                                 

WILL / WON’T

 

1. OFRECIMIENTOS DE AYUDA

SHALL  I CARRY  YOUR BAGS

I’LL OPEN THE DOOR FOR YOU

2. PROMESAS

WE WON’T BE LATE

I’LL ALWAYSLOVE YOU

3. UNPLANNED DECISIONS

I’LL HAVE THE STEAK,PLEASE

I’LL DOIT NOW

4. PREDICTIONS / OPINIONS

I THINK LIVERPOOL WILL WIN

I DON’T THINK I’LL ENJOY IT.

5. 1ºst CONDITIONAL

IF YOU EAT A LOT OF CHOCOLATE YOU’LL FALL IN LOVE

 

GOING TO

 

 

1. PLANNED FUTURE

WHAT ARE YOU GOING TO DO TONIGHT?

2. PREDICTION FROM EVIDENCE

THIS TEAM ARE GOING TO WIN

 

                                                   

 

THE PASSIVE

 

EL PRESENTE PASIVO

 

SE FORMA CON:AM / IS / ARE + PAST PARTICIPLE

 

EL PASADO PASIVO

 

SE FORMA CON : WAS / WERE + PAST PARTICIPLE

 

SI QUEREMOS INDICAR QUIEN HIZO LA ACCION USAMOS EL BY

 

USAMOS LA PASIVA CUANDO NO ESTAMOS INTERESADOS EN QUIEN REALIZA LA ACCION

 

 

 

 

 

          

                                     POSITIVE        NEGATIVE          QUESTIONS    

PRESENT

RICE IS GROWN IN CHINA.

 

CARS ARE MADE IN BRAZIL

IT ISN’T GROWN IN GERMANY.

 

THEY AREN’T MADE IN MONACO

IS IT GROWN

IN FRANCE?

 

ARE THEY MADE IN KOREA

PAST

PAPER WAS INVENTED BY CHINESE.

 

THE PYRAMIDS WERE BUILT  BY THE EGIPTIANS

IT WASN’T INVENTED BY THE GREEKS.

 

THEY WEREN’T BUILT BY THE ENGLISH

WHEN WAS IT INVENTED?

 

 

WERE THEY BUILT BY THE PHARAONS?

 

It was decided that…               se decidió que…

he was told the truth                le dijeron la verdad


my car is being repaired  me están arreglando el coche

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE  PASSIVE:

EXAMPLES

 

 

+ ANNA KARENINA WAS WRITTEN BY LEO TOLSTOY

  ANNA KARENINA WASN’T WRITTEN BY WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE

? WAS ANNA KARENINA WRITTEN BY LEO TOLSTOY ?

 

+ THE PYRAMIDS WERE BUILT BY THE EGYPTIANS

  THE PIRAMIDS WEREN’T BUILT BY THE GREEKS

? WERE THE PYRAMIDS BUILT BY THE EGYPTIANS ?

 

+ THE 1994 WORLD CUP WAS WON BY THE BRAZILIANS

  THE 1994 WORLD CUP WASN’T WON BY THE SPANISH

? WAS THE 1994 WORLD CUP WON   BY THE BRAZILIANS ?

 

+  PAPER WAS INVENTED BY THE CHINESE

   PAPER WASN’T INVENTED BY THE ITALIANS

?  WAS PAPER INVENTED BY THE CHINESE ?

 

+ THE MONA LISA WAS PAINTED BY LEONARDO DA VINCY

  THE MONA LISA WASN’T PAINTED BY MIGUEL ANGEL BUONAROTTI

?  WAS THE MONA LISA PAINTED BY LEONARDO DA VINCY ?

 

+  THE OLIMPICS GAMES WERE STARTED BY THE GREEKS

  THE OLIMPICS  GAMES WEREN’T  STARTED BY THE ROMANS

?  WERE THE OLIMPICS GAMES STARTED BY THE GREEKS?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MUST / MUSTN’T

 

USAMOS EL  MUST / MUSTN’T PARA CONSEJOS SERIOS Y OBLIGACIONES

 

La forma negativa de must es mustn’t, pero en contextos formales o enfáticos se suele usar must not. Cuando must expresa obligación, equivale a formas de deber o tener que:

 

you must tell her

debes decírselO

tienes que decírselo

She told him he mustn’t touch it

le dijo que no debía tocarlo

El verbo to have to sustituye a must en los tiempos verbales en que éste no se usa:

you’ll have to go                                    tendrás que ir

I had to stay                                               me tuve que quedar

 

Cuando must expresa intención, equivale a formas de tener que o al uso del subjuntivo en español:

I must remember to ring him

tengo que acordarme de llamarlo

hey mustn’t find out

que no se enteren

 

Cuando expresa conjetura, equivale a formas de deber (de):

 

it must be about ten o’clock

deben (de) ser alrededor de las diez

 

 

 

En esta acepción must también se usa seguido de have + participio:

 

she must have left early

debe (de) haber salido temprano

 

they must have missed the train

deben (de) haber perdido el tren

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. Me parece fantástico este blog de father gorgonzola !!
    Muy interesantes todos los datos,los consejos,las informaciones…completísimo y actualizado.
    Lo uso mucho y también lo he recomendado.
    La parte de gramática inglesa es un resumen sencillo y didáctico que vale la pena.
    La verdad un placer tener acceso a este blog.
    Te felicito!! Y te agradezco

    Me gusta

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