MIS APUNTES DE INGLES.ESCUELA OFICIAL DE IDIOMAS. 5º CURSO

GERUND

 

1.    DESPUES DE PREPOSICIONES

She left without saying goodbye

I´m thinking of buying a flat

 

2.  Despues de ciertos verbos ( ”EMOCION” )

LIKE, LOVE, HATE, ENJOY, MIND, FINISH, STOP…

     i love cooking but I hate cleaning

I don’t mind driving you to the airport

 

 

3.  COMO EL SUJETO DE LA FRASE

Eating in restaurants is expensive

Swimming is good exercise

 

 

INFINITIVO

GERUNDIO

FORGET

Te olvidastes de hacer algo.

No lo hicistes

Hicistes algo y no lo olvidaras.

REMEMBER

Recuerdas algo ,

luego lo hicistes

Te acuerdas de haber estado haciendo algo

TRY

 

Intentas hacer algo dificil

Intentas hacer algo facil.

NEED

Tienes que hacer algo.

Deberias de hacer algo

Algo tiene que ser hecho

Algo deberia de ser hecho

 

 

Verbs + -ing …:  (We loved driving through all time)

Adore

Accuse (sb) of

Admit

Apologized for

Can’t stand

Deny

Don’t mind

Enjoy

Finish

Hate

Insist (on)

Like

Look forward to

Love

Prefer

Recommend

Regret

Suggest

 

 

Adorar

Acusar de

Admitir

Disculparse de

No soportar

Negar

No importar

Disfrutar

Acabar

Odioar

Insistir en

Gustar

Tener ganas de

Amar

Preferir

Recomendar

Arrepentirse de

Sugerir

 

 

 

 

 

 

Doing

 

 

Cooking

 

 

Sightseing

 

Verbs + To +  Infinitive…: (I hope to see you soon)

 

Agreee

Choose

Dare

Decide

Expect

Forget

Help

Hope

Learn

Manage

Need

Offer

Promisse

Refuse

Seem

Want

Would like

Would love

Would prefer

Would hate

 

Estar de acuerdo

Escoger

Desafiar

Decidir

Esperar

Olvidar

Ayudar

Esperar

Aprender

Poder

Necesitar

Ofrecer

Prometer

Negar

Parecer

Querer

Gustaría

Querría

Preferiría

Odiaría

 

 

 

VERBOS MODALES DE OBLIGACION

 

VERBO MODAL

NEGATIVO

CONTRACCION

TRADUCCION AFIRM.

MUST

 

PERSONAL OBLIGATION

MUST NOT

MUSTN’T

 

PROHIBITION

DEBER,TENER QUE

 NO DEBER ,NO TENER QUE

 

HAVE TO

 

EXTERNAL OBLIGATION

DO NOT HAVE TO

DON’T HAVE TO

 

ABSENCE OF OBLIGATION

IT’S NO NECESSARY

TENGO /NO TENGO QUE

 

SHOULD

 

CONSEJO

RECOMENDACION

SHOULD NOT

SHOULD’T

TENDRIAS / NO TENDRIAS

 

EJEMPLOS

 

MUST:      OBLIGACION PERSONAL (impuesta por uno mismo)

I must remember her birthday

 

MUSTN’T:   PROHIBICION

You mustn’t park here

 

HAVE TO:     OBLIGACION EXTERNA (impuesta por ley u otros)

You have to drive on the left

 

DON’T HAVE TO:     AUSENCIA DE OBLIGACION

It’s free. You don’t have to pay

 

SHOULD:     CONSEJO, RECOMENDACION

You should drive more slowly

 

SHOULDN’T:     CONSEJO, Recomendación

You shouldn’t eat so much

 

 

VERBOS MODALES DE DEDUCCION

 

·        MUST + Inf  (Seguro que es verdad) 

·        MIGHT/COULD + Inf (Posiblemente es verdad)

·        CAN’T + Inf (Es imposible)

 

Usamos MUST+ Inf para decir que estamos seguros que algo (logicamente) es verdad. El contrario es CAN’T BE

 

He must be out. All the lights are off.

They must be Italian.They’re speaking Italian

 

Usamos MIGHT / COULD + inf para decir que algo es posiblemente verdad.

 

She might be working. I’m not sure.

He might be at home or he might be at the gym.

 

 Usamos CAN’T para decir que algo es imposible

 

It can’t be true! I don’t believe it.

They can’t be in New York! I saw them this morning.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MODAL VERBS OF PROBABILITY

 

RANGE OF CERTAIN

(de mas a  menos)

MODAL VERB

CERTEZA

COMENTARIO

1

WILL

SEGURO

Es presente, no futuro !

 

Para EL PASADO SE LE AÑADE EL PRESENT PERFECT:

 

she must have left early

they must have missed the train

they may have called earlier

 

Will have gone: habrá ido

Must have gone: puede haber ido

 

2

MUST

CASI SEGURO

3

MAY

PUEDE,

 NO MUY SEGURO

4

MIGHT & COULD

 

Negatives

 

3

COULDN’T

PUEDE QUE NO

2

CAN’T

CASI SEGURO QUE NO

1

WON’T

SEGURO QUE NO

 

 

EN POSITIVO,NO USAMOS NUNCA CAN,USAMOS MAY.

PARA ESPECULAR SOBRE UNO MISMO,OBVIAMENTE, NO SE USA WILL O MUST

 

 

EJEMPLOS

 

That will be Joe on the phone …..   Debe (de) ser Joe el que llama

Es seguro que es Joe

 

 It must be about ten o’clock    …..  Deben (de) ser alrededor de las diez

Casi seguro que son las diez

 

 

She may decide to stay    …..   Puede que decida quedarse

Puede que si o puede que no

 

I might go this weekend     ….. A lo mejor voy este fin de semana

No estoy muy seguro,a lo mejor

 

We could take the  train     Podríamos coger el  tren

Cogeriamos el tren (en caso de no tener coche,por ejemplo)

 

 

 

 

VER + -ING  OR TO + INFINITIVE

 

Frecuentemente usamos   Verb + -ING  PARA UNA ACCION QUE SUCEDE,

QUE PASA, ANTES DEL PRIMER VERBO

 

They denied stealing the money

(primero se habia robado el dinero,despues niegan haberlo hecho)

 

 stealing                  denied  

 

 

 

USAMOS VERB  + TO + INFINITIVE PARA UNA ACCION

QUE SIGUE  AL PRIMER VERBO

 

They decided to steal  the money

(primero lo deciden y seguidamente lo hacen)

 

 decided                 to steal

 

 

 

REMEMBER

 

VERB + -ING

TE ACUERDAS DE HABER ESTADO HACIENDO ALGO

 

 I’m absolutely sure  I locked the door. I clearly  remember locking it.

 

VERB + TO + INFINITIVE

 

RECUERDAS ALGO QUE DEBES DE HACER Y LO HACES

 

I remembered  to lock the door when I left  but I forgot to shut the windows

 

 

 

REGRET

 

VERB + -ING

 

ME ARREPIENTO DE HABER HECHO ALGO ANTES; PRIMERO LO HICE Y AHORA LO LAMENTO

 

We’ve always regretted selling the farm

 

 

VERB + TO + INFINITIVE

 

ME APENA, LAMENTO ALGO QUE VOY A DECIR / INFORMAR, AHORA

 

We regret to inform you that  we are unable to offer you the job

 

 

 

 

GO ON

 

 

VERB + -ING

 

CONTINÚO HACIENDO /DICIENDO  LA MISMA COSA

 

The minister went on talking for two hours

 

VERB + TO + INFINITIVE

 

CONTINÚO HACIENDO /DICIENDO  ALGO NUEVO

 

After discussing the economy,the minister then went on to talk about foreign policy

 

 

 

TRY

 

VERB + -ING

 

 

INTENTAS HACER ALGO FACIL

PROBAR ALGO NUEVO

I tried moving the table  to the other side of the room

 

 

VERB + TO + INFINITIVE

 

 

INTENTAS HACER ALGO DIFICIL

 

I tried to move the table but it  was too heavy

 

NEED

 

VERB + -ING

 

ALGO TIENE O DEBERIA DE SER HECHO

 

The batteries in the radio  need changing

 

VERB + TO + INFINITIVE

 

TIENES TU O DEBERIAS DE HACER TU ALGO

 

I need to take more exercise

 

 

NON-DEFINING RELATIVES

 

Se usan para dar informacion extra sobre una persona , lugar o cosa.

 

La frase que contiene el relativo,

va siempre  entre comas. (ó coma y punto)

 

En este tipo  de uso del relativo,

no podemos omitir which /who, where and whose

como antes que se daba el caso al cambiar el sujeto. 

 

No podemos usar that

 

·        The house ,which has a large garden, was just what they had always wanted

·        My mother ,who is 65, has just retired

·        Finally I arrived home, where my mother was waiting for me

·        Chester,where my parents live, is a beautiful town 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HAVE SOMETHING DONE (I)

 

 

CUANDO TU ORGANIZAS ALGO PARA QUE OTRA PERSONA LO HAGA

 

REGLA GENERAL

 

HAVE + SOMETHING + PAST PARTICIPLE

 

I’m  having the house painted

(he pagado a los pintores para que lo hagan por mi)

 

He’s having a new garage built

El ha construido un nuevo garage (los albañiles lo han hecho)

 

We’ve just had the house painted

Hemos acabado de pintar la casa(la han pintado los pintores)

 

I usually have  my hair cut one a month

Normalmente me corto el pelo una vez al mes (el peluquero)

 

Aquí Have es el verbo principal,asi pues la negativa y la interrogativa son formadas con Do/Did en el Present simple y el Past simple

 

I didn’t have the kitchen painted because I did it myself

How often do you have your car serviced? 

“CAUSATIVE HAVE”

HAVE SOMETHING DONE (II)

 

REMEMBER:

REGLA GENERAL

EL PAST PARTICIPLE VA DESPUES DEL OBJETO

 

HAVE + SOMETHING + PAST PARTICIPLE

 

Example of situation:

The roof of Jill’s house was damaged in a storm, so she arranged for somebody to repair it. Yesterday a workman came and did the job.

 

Jill had  the roof repaired yesterday

 

This means: Jill arranged  for somebody else to repair the roof.

She didn’t repair it herself.

 

Examples

                 Have   +    Object +  P.Participle

Jill

Had

The roof

Repaired

Yesterday

Where

Did you have

Your hair

Cut?

 

Your hair looks nice

Have you had

It

Cut?

 

Julia

Has just had

Central heating

Installed

In her house

We

Are having

The house

Painted

At the moment

How often

Do you have

Your car

Serviced

 

I think you should

Have

Tha coat

Cleaned

Soon

I don’t like

Having

My photograph

taken

 

 

“CAUSATIVE HAVE”

HAVE SOMETHING DONE (III)

 

Sometimes HAVE SOMETHING DONE

Has a different meaning In depending of the verb:

 

ED  PARTICIPLE:

Subject + Have + Sb /Sth + ED Participle

 

 

·       Arrangement:

 

I’ve  had my house painted

I’m having my car repaired

 

·       Suffering:

 

She has had her husband killed

The have had their house burn down

George had his nose broken in a fight

 

 

Bare infinitive

(infinitivo “desnudo”,sin sujeto)

 

Subject + Have + Sb /Sth + Bare Infinitive

 

 

·       Uncontrolled

(The action is uncontrolled by the subject)

 

The Galicians are having their beaches pollut

During the flood they had their house destroy

 

Verb + ing

Subject + Have + Sb /Sth + Verb Ing

 

 

 

·       Intollerance

 

I won’t have you coming back home at 5 a.m. and drunk

 

·       Omen

Presagio (malo o bueno)

 

You’ll have your fingers burning

 

·       Persuasion

 

The new teacher had the students sitting down quietly in five minutes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Phrasal verbs

Back up

Respaldar

Bump into

Encontrarse con

Call off

Cancelar

Carry out

Llevar a cabo

Cut down

Reducir

Frown on

Desaprobar

Get across

Hacer entender

Knock down

Atropellar

Leaf through

Hojear

Live on

Vivir de

Live up to

Estar a la altura

Look down on

Despreciar

Make out

Distinguir

Pick out

seleccionar

Pick up

Recoger

Put off

posponer

Rely on

Confiar en

Rip off

Timar

Run up

acumular

Set off

Encender

Set off

Salir

Set up

Montar un negocio

Stand out

Destacar

Take on

Coger un empleo

Take up

Llevar / ocupar

Talk Sb into

Convencer a alguien

Tie up

Atar

Track down

Localizar

Turn up

Aparecer

 

 

 

 

LINKERS

 

And what’s more / Y lo que es mas /Ademas

And what’s more,he knew how touse it

 

As soon as  / En cuanto / tan pronto como

As soon as the water boils, add the pasta

 

At the end  / Al final

At the end of the story….

 

Because of  / a causa de / debido a

He couldn’t play because of his injury

 

But  / Sino

they had not one, but three houses!

 

Calmy  / Con calma

Calmly,the child pick up the paw

 

Despite / A pesar de

despite the rain, the beach was full of people

 

However / Sin embargo

the room is very small; we’ll take it, however

 

In the end / Finally

In the end the wolf ran off

 

Just then / Justo entonces

Just then she heard the howl of a wolf

LINKERS (II)

 

Obediently / Obedientemente

Obediently,the child started out through the wood

 

So…that  / Para que

I put it away so (that) he wouldn’t see it

 

Such…that  / Tal que

I had such a headache that I decided to stay at home

 

First / Firstly  /Lo primero ,Primeramente…

First of all we had to clean the walls

 

Also / Tambien

She’s a student, but she also has a part-time job

 

In conclusion / En conclusion

in conclusion…

 

Overall / En conjunto / En general

The play was a success overall

 

Since  / Desde

I haven’t been there since I was a child

 

Furthermore / Ademas

I don’t know what happened to Rupert  and furthermore I dont care

 

 

 

Last but not least / Por ultimo y no por eso menos importante

and, last but not least,…

 

In addition / Ademas

There will be four children in addition to the six adults

 

LINKERS (III)

 

Therefore / por lo tanto  Por consiguiente

Their funds ran out, and therefore they had to close

 

To summarise / En resumen

The theatre was packed,the audience was happy,

to summarise ie has been a huge success

 

As a result / Como consecuencia de ello

as a result, the match was postponed

 

Moreover / Además, lo que es más

we got there late and, moreover, exhausted

 

First and foremost /  Ante todo / Primero y mas importante

Manchester was, first and foremost, an industrial city

 

Finally / Por ultimo

Finally, I should like to ask…

 

Consequently / En consecuencia

Our shares have gone down a 45 % consequently,the competition is buying

 

To conclude / Para terminar

To conclude I can only say that he is innocent

 

In brief /Resumiendo

In brief, this is what happened

 

Hence / De ahí / Por lo tanto

he lived in Mexico for fifteen years, hence his accent

 

VERBOS MODALES DE OBLIGACION

 

VERBO MODAL

NEGATIVO

TRADUCCION AFIRM.

MUST

(NO PASADO,SOLO EN PRESENTE Y OBLIGACIONES FUTURAS)

PERSONAL OBLIGATION

La obligacion procede del que habla

MUSTN’T

 

MUST NOT

 

PROHIBITION

 

DEBER,TENER QUE

 NO DEBER ,NO TENER QUE

 

HAVE TO

 

EXTERNAL OBLIGATION,

FOR CIRCUNSTANCES OR LAW.

La obligacion procede de otros o por ley

DON’T HAVE TO

DO NOT HAVE TO

 

ABSENCE OF OBLIGATION.IT’S NO NECESSARY

TENGO /NO TENGO QUE

 

 

EJEMPLOS

 

MUST:      OBLIGACION PERSONAL (impuesta por uno mismo)

I must remember her birthday

I must pay all my debts

 

 

 

MUSTN’T:   PROHIBICION

You mustn’t park here

Remember Johnny that you mustn’t stare at people on the bus

 

HAVE TO:     OBLIGACION EXTERNA (impuesta por ley u otros)

You have to drive on the left

I had to pay all my debts when my taylor caught me

When I was in te army  I had to do lot of things I abhorred.

Sorry boys,but the headmaster says you have to stay in detention this afternoon

 

DON’T HAVE TO:     AUSENCIA DE OBLIGACION

It’s free. You don’t have to pay

 

 

NECESSITY MODALS

 

NEEDN’T

 

LEXICAL  NEED

MODAL NEED

 

AFIRMATIVE

I need  to play soccer

NO AFIRMATIVE

I don’t need to workk

I needn’t to work

She doesn’t need to work

She needn’t to work

Does she need to work?

Need she  work?

 

 

·        You needn’t do something= NO es necesario que lo hagas,

NO necesitas hacerlo:

 

 

 

 

 

Ejemplos:

 

You Can come with me if you like  but you needn’t come if you don’t want to

Tu puedes venir conmigo si te apetece,pero no necesitas venir si no te apetece.

(NO ES NECESARIO QUE VENGAS)

 

 

 

We’ve got plenty of time.We needn’t hurry

Tenemos tiempo de sobra. No necesitamos apresurarnos

(NO ES NECESARIA LA PRISA)

 

 

NECESSITY MODALS(II)

 

NEEDN’T HAVE (DONE)

 

LEXICAL  NEED

MODAL NEED

 

NEGATIVE

I didn’t need to go

I needn’t have gone

She didn’t need to work

She  needn’t have worked

 

 

 

 

 

 

EJEMPLOS

 

George had to go out. He thought it was going to rain, so he decided to take the umbrella.

But it didn’t rain,so the unbrella was not necessary.So:

 

He needn’t have taken the umbrella

 

He needn’t haven taken the umbrella = he took the umbrella but this was not necessary. Of course,he didn’t know this when he went out.

 

Compare

 

I Didn’t need to  get up early,so I didn’t. 

it was not  necessary  for me. So I didn’t

 No tenia que levantarme temprano  y no lo hice

(Yo  sabia en ese momento que no era necesario)

 

I didn’t need  to get up early,but it was a lovely morning,so I did.

No tenia que levantarme temprano,pero lo hice de todos modos.

 

I got up very early because I had  to get ready to go away.But in fact it didn’t take me long to get ready,So I needn’t have got up so early.I could have stayed in bed longer.

Tenia que levantarme temprano  y asi lo hice.

( Cuando lo hice supe que no era necesario)

 

 

Asi pues  didn’t need to go y needn’t have gone (i,e,) en el pasado son diferentes.Porque?

 

Verb

Was it necessary?

Did you go?

 

Didn’t need to go

 

 

No

 

yes

 

Needn’t have gone

 

No

 

?

 

 

SOME ADJECTIVES AND THEIR TRANSLATION

 

ADJECTIVE

TRANSLATION

Compassionate

Compasivo

Sympathetic

Compresivo

Gregarious

Sociable

Gentle

Dulce,tierno

Dexterous

diestro

Insightful

Perspicaz

Composed

Tranquilo

Faithful

Fiel

Self-reliant

Independiente

Encouraging

Alentador

Regal

Regio

Down –to- heart

Sensato y practico

Supportive

Que apoya

Strong –willed

De mucha fuerza de voluntad

Having low self esteem

Tenen baja autoestima

Non – committal

Evasivo

Overburdened

Agobiado, sobrecargado

Chilvarous

Caballeroso

Trustworthy

Digno de confianza

Having high values

Tener altos valores,principios

 

 

Prefixes,their meanings and examples

PREFIXE

MEANING

EXAMPLE

Arch

Chief,main,

Hightest ranking

Archangel

Archbishop

Counter

Against

Counterattack

Counterproductive

Hyper

Exceeding, surpasing

Hyperactive,hyperactive,

Hypertension

Mal

Badly,wrong

Malformation,malfunction,

Malnutrition

Pro

For,in favour of

Proamerican , progovernment

Pseudo

False, pretended

Pseudoanarchist,

Pseudoleft-wing (izquierdista)

Sub

Under

Subconcious,subcontract,

Submarine, submarine

Trans

Across

Transatlantic,transcontinental

Bi

Two

Bilingual,

Biannual,bisexual

Co

With,together

Cooperation

Coalition ,co-driver

De

Taken away

Decentralise,

Debunk (descentralizar)

Ex

Former , before

Ex – husband,

Ex – president

Fore

Before , in front of

Forecast ,forebears (antepasados) Forefront  (vanguardia)

Inter

Between

International ,interchange,

Intercontinental

Prefixes,their meanings and examples (II)

 

PREFIXE

MEANING

EXAMPLES

Neo

New

Neoclassical.

Neorealism

Over

Extremely , too

Overeat, Overburdened,

Overcrowded

Post

After

Postscript , Postwar,

Postpone

Pre

Before

Prefix, Prehistoric,

Prejudge

Re

Again

Redecorate, reanimated,

Reactivate

Super

Above , more than

Supersonic, superhuman,

Superintendent

Tri

Three

Triangle, trident

Trilogy

Under

Not enough

Underpaid, underdeveloped,

Underhand (desaseado)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Negative prefixes

 

Prefixe

examples

UN

Unsatisfied, Unwelcome , Unfriendly, Undisciplined

IN

Inability, Inhospitable, Inaccessible, Inaccurate (inexacto)

IM

Immature, Immaculate, Immeasurable, Inmoral, Inmodest

NON

Non-alcoholic,Non-aligned, Non-believer, Nonconformist

DIS

Disability, Disadvantage, Disaffection,Disagreeable

IR

Irrational, Irreconciliable, Irregular,Irrelevant,Irresolute

IL

Illegal, Illogical, Illegible, Illicit,

 

 

MIXED CONDITIONAL

 

Al margen de los tres condicionales basicos,existe un cuarto tipo que se denomina Mixed Conditional que tiene la particularidad de mezclar  las propiedades del tercer y segundo (por ejemplo) en la misma oracion de condicional.

 

La primera parte de la oracion (la condicion) va en pasado,mientras la segunda parte (la consecuencia) podrá ir tanto en presente como en futuro.

III conditional                        II conditional

If I hadn’t broken  my legs yesterday…I would go to the ball

 

II conditional                        III conditional

If She spoke chinesse…. she would have got the job

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I WISH = IF ONLY

 

OJALÁ…

 

 

I WISH + PAST TENSE

 

REFIRIENDOSE AL PRESENTE O AL FUTURO

(Quiero cambiar algo del presente)

 

OJALA YO FUESE RICO (AHORA O DENTRO DE UN MES)

 

I whish I were rich

 

 

I WISH + PAST PERFECT

 

REFIRIENDOSE AL PASADO

(Algo que ocurrió y que ojalá no hubiera ocurrido)

 

OJALA YO HUBIESE TERMINADO MI TRABAJO (AYER)

 

I wish I had finished my homework (yesterday)

 

I didn’t  learn german , I wish I had learned german (or if only)

 

 

 

 

I WISH + WOULD

 

REFIRIENDOSE A QUEJAS O CRITICAS HACIA ALGO O ALGUIEN

(Para hábitos que nos molestan)

(Pensamos en futuro y por eso ponemos el would que es condicional de futuro)

 

Ojalá dejara de llover

 

I wish it would stop raining

 

 

I WISH = IF ONLY

(Ojalá)

 

OBSERVAR:

 

QUE EL CAMBIO DEL TIEMPO VERBAL ES UN PASO

HACIA DELANTE EN EL PASADO.  

 

        ESTO ES…..:

 

AM / IS……WAS

ARE…..WERE

HAVE / HAS…..HAD

CAN….COULD

WILL / WON’T….WOULD

DOES / DO…..DID

LIKE…LIKED

GO….WENT

ETC.ETC…

 

I AM SHORT  – I WISH  I WAS TALL (or If only)

I LIVE IN SPAIN  -I WISH  I DIDN’T LIVE IN SPAIN(or If only)

           -I WISH I LIVED IN ENGLAND

 

(Quiero cambiar algo del presente)

 

PETER SMOKES TOO MUCH   -I WISH HE WOULD’T SMOKE SO MUCH (or If only)

 

(Para hábitos que nos molestan)

(pensamos en futuro:(Ojalá dejara de fumar)

y por eso ponemos el would que es condicional de futuro)

 

 

TOM WON’T HELP ME   -I WISH PETER WOULD HELP ME (or If only)

IM DIDN’T LEARN GERMAN   -I WISH I HAD LEARNED GERMAN (or If only)

(Algo que ocurrió y que ojalá no hubiera ocurrido)

 

MODAL VERBS OF ABILITY

(IN THE PAST)

 

USO DEL COULD ó WAS /WERE ABLE TO

 

COULD:

 

USAMOS COULD PARA HABLAR DE UNA HABILIDAD O UNA SITUACION GENERAL

My grandfather could play the piano

 

I could swim when I was four

 

 

SE USA PARA REFERIRSE A HABILIDADES Y/O SITUACIONES EN EL PASADO QUE REQUIRIERON UN LARGO LAPSUS DE TIEMPO

 

When I was child, I could play the piano

 

(DURANTE MUCHO TIEMPO ESTUVE ESTUDIANDO PIANO)

 

USAMOS COULD

 

SI SON VERBOS DE SENTIDOS (SEE,HEAR,SMELL,TASTE,FEEL) O DE PENSAMIENTO (REMEMBER,UNDERSTAND)

 

USAMOS COULDN’T

 

PARA EXPRESAR UNA HABILIDAD NEGATIVA EN EL PASADO,

 

I couldn’t find my wallet anywhere

 

WAS ABLE TO :

 

 

SI NOS REFERIMOS A UNA SITUACION EN UN MOMENTO CONCRETO,O EN UNA SITUACION PARTICULAR EN EL PASADO, DEBEMOS USAR WAS ABLE TO

 

When I was young,I was able to climb to the everest

 

USAMOS WAS / WERE BE ABLE TOPARA DECIR QUE ALGUIEN HIZO ALGO EN UNA OCASIÓN ESPECIAL O TENIA UNA DIFICULTAD MUY GRANDE PARA HACERLO

Although the restaurant was very full,  we were able to get a table

I was be able to pass my driving test after six times

 

The man was drowning,but she managed to swim to him and save him

 

The prisoners were be able to escape

 

 

 

 

 

 

CAN

BE ABLE TO +INFINITIVE

PRESENT SIMPLE

FUTURE (WILL)

PAST SIMPLE

PRESENT PERFECT

INFINITIVE

GERUND

CAN

COULD

AM/IS/ARE ABLE TO

 

WILL BE ABLE TO

 

WAS/WERE ABLE TO

 

HAS/HAVE BEEN ABLE TO

 

(TO) BE ABLE TO

 

BEING ABLE TO

 

 

 

INVERSION ( CONDICIONALES)

 

 

PRIMER CONDICIONAL

 

(NECESITAMOS EL AUXILIAR SHOULD PARA INVERTIR EL CONDICIONAL)

 

A)   If you see him , beat him up (Imposible Inversion)

 

B)    If you should see him, beat him up (Posible Inversion para enfatizar)

 

 

C)    If should you see him , beat him up (inversion realizada)

 

 

SEGUNDO CONDICIONAL

 

(NECESITAMOS WERE PARA INVERTIR EL CONDICIONAL)

 

A)     If he became famous, he wouldn’t even greet you

B)      If he were to became famous, he wouldn’t even greet you 

C)      If were he to became famous, he wouldn’t even greeet you.

 

TERCER CONDICIONAL

 

(NO NECESITAMOS AUXILIAR PUES YA LO TENEMOS EN LA PROPIA FRASE)

 

A)     If he had  been here, he would have seen it.

 

B)      (No necesito el paso B para construir la inversion)

 

C)  If  had he  been here, he would have seen  it

 

Notar que la segunda parte de la oracion en ninguno de los tres caso sufre ningun cambio

 

En las afirmaciones es usual que el sujeto vaya seguido del verbo.

 

Sin embargo a veces este orden de palabras es cambiado.

Esto es lo que llamamos INVERSION.

 

INVERSION EN EXPRESIONES ADVERBIALES DE DIRECCION Y LUGAR

(usada particularmente en estilo formal o literario  o para enfatizar)

 

Cuando ponemos una expresion adverbial (especialmente de direccion o lugar) al principio de la frase,

ponemos el verbo delante del sujeto

 

I have never eaten such a good paella

Never have I eaten such a good paella

 

You will nowhere come across a more hospitable people

Nowhere will you come across a more hospitable people

 

INVERSION EN EXPRESIONES ADVERBIALES NEGATIVAS

 

NEVER (BEFORE)

NUNCA ANTES

RARELY

CASI NUNCA

SELDOM

RARAS VECES

HARDLY/SCARCELY/BARELY..

WHEN/BEFORE

APENAS..CUANDO/ANTES

NO SOONER…THAN

TAN PRONTO….CUANDO

 

SEGUIMOS PONIENDO EN LA FRASE INVERTIDA EL VERBO DELANTE DEL SUJETO,PERO DELANTE DEL ADVERBIO

DEBEMOS DE PONER: NOT

 

I didn’t allow myself a rest until I arrived home

Not until I arrived home did I allow miself a rest

 

As soon as she saw him,she shot at him

No sooner had she seen him than she shot at him

 

 

5 comentarios

  1. Bueno como te dije en un post que nadie sabe ande andará, me he pasado por aqui a robarte los apuntes de inglés, así by the face, espero que no te importe jajajajaja.

    Un beso y a seguir con este nuevo reto de crear un blog y mantenerlo vivo.

    Un besote a la family.

    Mamen

    Me gusta

  2. Graaaaaacias!!!!

    realmente me ha encantado ver lo que me espera el curso que viene. Nosotros hemos llegado a hacer también algunos resúmenes (PDFs que hemos repartido entre los compas, sobre todo con lo de los gerund/to+inf y otros…) pero nada tan completo.

    Bueno es ver venir la que nos espera en 5º. Tx

    Me gusta

  3. Muchas gracias por esta aportación.

    Me gusta

  4. Hola Alvaro. Yo hice 3º por That´s English, y me gustaría intentar 5º por libre este año, aunque me da un poco de terror xd puesto que tiene que no tiene que ser nada fácil. Me gustaría saber que me aconsejas y en que grado estos apuntes pueden ayudar a aprobar el examen. Muchas gracias, y siempre alegra ver que hay gente dispuesta a faciliar el camino a los demás.

    Me gusta

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